A Brief History of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
This article is about the underlying pre-war conflicts between Israel and Palestine. As currently the most talked about event in the world, it’s important to understand not only what is happening now but also what was happening before.
Image: Fire and smoke rise from Gaza City following an Israeli airstrike on October 8, Author: Fatima Shbair, CNN.com
1948 Israel declared independence
After WW2, Britain mandated that Palestinian land should be split into two independent states. One Arabic and the other Jewish. Religiously significant Jerusalem was to be under special international administration. The Arab side rejected the plan arguing that it was unfavourable to the vast population which was the beginning of their many disputes. The day after, Israel declared independence. Arab countries in alliance with Palestine attacked Israeli forces leading to the first of many Arab - Israeli conflicts. Israel gained control over a larger part of the territory. Egypt had control over The Gaza Strip.
The six-day war in 1967
A short war between Egypt and Israel over the dispute of the Gulf of Aqaba left Israel taking over crucial territories such as the West Bank, Gaza and East Jerusalem.
A terrorist attack during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich was organised by eight members of a Palestinian militant group called Black September. The eight members broke into the Olympic village, killed two Israeli athletes on the spot and kidnapped another nine. In negotiations, they demanded 234 Palestinian prisoners to be released from Israeli prisons. After a failed ambush by the German police, all kidnapped athletes were killed as well as five of the eight attackers.
First intifadah IN 1987
A Palestinian uprising that brought many clashes and protests against Israeli occupation in The West Bank and Gaza led to a long conflict between Israel and Palestine that left many victims on both sides.
second intifadah IN 2000
Riots broke out following a visit by Israeli political figure Ariel Sharon (who later became Prime Minister) to a compound in Jerusalem that is
venerated in Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Clashes continued until 2005.
2006 - Hamas elected in gaza
After Israeli troops withdrew from Gaza in 2005, Hamas, a Palestinian Islamist militant group, won legislative elections the next year.
Three-week attack on gaza in december 2008
After a rocket hit Israel, Israeli forces launched Operation “Hot Winter”. The operation resulted in 112 Palestinians and three Israelis dead.
Death of Hamas military chief
In 2012, Ahmed Jabari, the military chief of Hamas, died after back-and-forth rocket fire alongside at least 150 Palestinians and 6 Israelis.
Hamas militants killed three Israeli teenagers, prompting an Israeli military response. Hamas answered with rocket attacks from Gaza. A seven-week conflict left more than 2,200 Palestinians dead in Gaza. In Israel, 67 soldiers and six civilians were killed.
JErusalem - the capital of israel
The Trump administration recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel in 2017. The U.S. shifted its embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, outraging the Palestinians.
al-aqsa mosque raided
Al-Aqsa Mosque, located in Jerusalem, is the third-holiest site in Islam. It was raided in May 2021 by Israeli police setting off an 11-day war that killed more than 200 Palestinians and 10 Israelis.
israel at war
On October 8th 2023, Israel formally declared war on Hamas, following air strikes on Israeli territory from Hamas.
Westfall, S., Murphy B., Taylor A., Pietsch, B. “The Israeli-Palestinian conflict: A chronology”, Washington Post, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/israel-palestine-conflict-timeline-history-explained/
Bubola, E. “Here is a timeline of the clashes between Palestinian militants and Israel.” https://www.nytimes.com/2023/10/07/world/middleeast/israel-gaza-conflict-timeline.html
USNews.com, “Israel and Palestinian War: What You Need to Know Right Now.” https://www.usnews.com/news/world/articles/2023-10-09/israel-and-palestinian-war-what-you-need-to-know-right-now
Bella, T. “The Gaza Strip and its history, explained.” Washington Post, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/10/09/gaza-strip-israel-hamas-explained/
History.com, “Palestine - History, Religion & Conflicts” https://www.history.com/topics/middle-east/palestine#sources
BBC, “ In Depth | Israel and Palestine | key documents | UN partition plan” http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/middle_east/israel_and_the_palestinians/key_documents/1681322.stm
CNN, “In Pictures: The Deadly Clashes in Israel and Gaza.”/